The hottest hydrogen revolution four points to cla

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Four points of a hydrogen "revolution" clarify the road to the development of hydrogen energy in China

the energy evolution history of mankind in the past 100 years is essentially the history of adjusting the hydrocarbon ratio. The hydrogen content continues to increase, and the energy density also continues to increase. The basic energy density of hydrogen is three times that of gasoline. Therefore, it is the general trend to shift from carbon energy to hydrogen energy in the future, and hydrogen energy is expected to become the next generation of basic energy

recently, the construction contracts for two new hydrogen refueling stations located on the Rhine River in Germany have been signed

after the completion of construction in 2019, each hydrogen refueling station can provide a total of 500 kg of hydrogen for up to 20 hydrogen passenger cars per day

the energy evolution history of mankind in the past hundred years is essentially the history of adjusting the hydrocarbon ratio. With the continuous increase of hydrogen content, the energy density also increases. The basic energy density of hydrogen is three times that of gasoline

therefore, it is the general trend to shift from carbon energy to hydrogen energy in the future, and hydrogen energy is expected to become the next generation of basic energy

hydrogen fuel cells have advantages in energy density and rapid hydrogen charging in Jung industrial symposium, and have good development prospects, but there are technical problems. Experts from Sinopec economic and Technological Research Institute pointed out that the current main problems include the high production cost of hydrogen and batteries (catalysts), and the difficulty in achieving breakthroughs in mass production and cost reduction of hydrogen storage materials

in the long run, the key technologies of new energy vehicles, including hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, will eventually achieve a qualitative breakthrough, which will fundamentally change the current oil-based energy pattern

petrochemical enterprises can timely intervene in the new energy vehicle industry chain in terms of hydrogen supply, refueling, gas filling, charging and hydrogenation integrated operation, as well as the development of automotive lightweight materials and high-end materials, so as to realize the transformation and adjustment of the petrochemical industry chain and cultivate new profit growth points

possible substitution of energy in the future

"in 2016, hydrogen energy and fuel cells were listed as one of the 15 key development fields in China's energy science and technology field, and there is great potential in the future." At the China International hydrogen energy and fuel cell industry development conference held on July 26, Xiang Hui, Deputy Secretary General of China Machinery Construction Industry Federation, affirmed the future development of hydrogen energy and fuel cells

so far, there have been two energy revolutions in human history. The first energy revolution was that coal replaced wood as the dominant energy, and the second energy revolution was that oil replaced coal as the dominant energy

although fossil energy is still dominant at present, more than 10 series of more than 200 products, such as horizontal tensile testing machine, spring fatigue testing machine, zigzag testing machine, zigzag testing machine, etc., take into account the increasingly prominent shortage of fossil energy resources, the environmental pollution caused by vehicle emissions and the depletion of oil resources are increasing, and finding clean alternative energy is a problem that every country must solve

fuel cells do not burn fuel at all, but directly convert the chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy through electrochemical reaction. Therefore, the energy conversion efficiency can be as high as 45% - 60%, about twice that of internal combustion engines. With the progress of technology, it can be higher

hydrogen fuel cell vehicles do not emit harmful gases such as sulfide and nitrogen oxide, nor do they produce greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles do not have the disadvantages of long charging time and short mileage of pure electric vehicles

as early as the 1960s, fuel cells were successfully applied in the aerospace field because of their small size and large capacity

after entering the 1970s, with the continuous progress of technology, hydrogen fuel cells have been gradually applied to power generation and automobiles

nowadays, with the rise of various electronic intelligent devices and the popularity of new energy vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells are mainly used in three fields: fixed field, transportation field and portable field

at present, the mainstream development direction of hydrogen fuel cell is hydrogen fuel cell vehicle. Fuel cells directly convert the chemical energy of fuel into electrical energy, with high energy conversion efficiency. Compared with the power lithium battery carried by pure electric vehicles, hydrogen fuel cells are light in weight, have a short time to supplement energy, need only 3 to 5 minutes for hydrogenation, and have a long range of more than 600 kilometers

facing the demand gap, China wants to "overtake on the curve"

recently, the development planning and Statistics Bureau of Shunde District, Foshan, Guangdong Province revealed in its reply to the proposal of CPPCC members that 70 hydrogen fuel cell buses are expected to be put into use in Shunde District within the year. At present, Shunde is simplifying the planning review and accelerating the construction of charging and changing facilities for new energy vehicles

it is understood that hydrogen powered buses only need 5-10 minutes to add hydrogen once a day, and can run 400 kilometers

according to the Shunde hydrogen bus launch plan, the construction of hydrogen refueling stations in the region is imminent. Shunde District plans to build two hydrogen refueling stations this year and strive for three

after 31 years of silence since the first fuel cell vehicle came out in 1966, the United States, Japan and the European Union have re recognized that hydrogen fuel cells can be widely used in energy interconnection, new energy vehicles and other fields in addition to the role of military industry and national defense

around 2000, the application of fuel cell vehicles began to be concerned by developed countries

after that, some countries have actively developed clean energy, including hydrogen energy, by establishing energy bills, energy strategies, technology roadmap and other ways, trying to reduce their dependence on traditional primary energy

from the perspective of global hydrogen refueling station construction, foreign hydrogen refueling station facilities are more perfect and develop rapidly

at present, the countries that vigorously develop fuel cell vehicle hydrogenation stations are mainly the United States, Germany and Japan, and have formulated long-term development plans. Among them, Japan has become the country with the largest number of hydrogenation stations in the world

according to statistics, more than 300 hydrogen refueling stations have been built in the world. Compared with foreign countries, the development of hydrogenation stations in China lags behind

in 2014, China's hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle industry started construction

in the past four years, Foshan (Yunfu) industrial transfer industrial park, located in Guangdong Province, has become the development highland of the hydrogen energy industry with important influence in China. 28 hydrogen buses have been put into operation in Foshan and Yunfu for two years, and various indicators have exceeded expectations. On the basis of the two hydrogen refueling stations already in operation, Foshan and Yunfu will build 22 hydrogen refueling stations by the end of 2018

from the perspective of national hydrogen energy industry planning, most countries take hydrogen fuel cells as a breakthrough, gradually improve the hydrogen energy industry supporting facilities, and achieve a hydrogen energy society in 2040-2050

the Research Report on the future development trend of hydrogen energy released by the international Hydrogen Energy Commission shows that by 2050, the demand for hydrogen energy will be 10 times that of the present, and by 2030, the global fuel cell passenger vehicles are expected to reach 10million to 15million

in this new round of "competition", China is gearing up to "overtake in curves"

technological progress promotes cost reduction

to achieve the leadership and "corner overtaking" of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles in the world, many problems in the whole industry chain still need to be solved, among which the technical problems of hydrogen preparation and storage need to be solved first

Professor jianglijun, director of the special committee of China Renewable Energy Association, believes that there are still many problems to be solved in the production, storage and transportation of hydrogen energy

in terms of hydrogen production, the most common ones are wind power generation or solar power generation, and hydrogen production by electrolytic water. Hydrogen is the least dense gas, with strong diffusion ability and very active chemical properties. These characteristics make it difficult to store hydrogen in conventional form

at present, there are three main ways to store hydrogen: high-pressure gaseous storage, which reduces many processing and post-processing procedures, low-temperature liquid storage, and solid hydrogen absorbing material storage. High pressure hydrogen storage containers are large in volume, and there are safety problems such as leakage and hydrogen embrittlement; The energy consumption of liquid hydrogen storage is large, and the evaporation of liquid hydrogen leads to the potential safety hazards of storage tanks; Reversible metal hydride has a large hydrogen storage weight

China's hydrogen transportation system is not perfect

hydrogen transportation methods mainly include gas hydrogen transportation, liquid hydrogen transportation, etc

gas and hydrogen transportation is divided into pipeline transportation, long pipe trailer and hydrogen cylinder transportation

pipeline transportation is generally used in occasions with large transportation volume. There are hydrogen pipelines in the United States, Canada and many industrial regions in Europe. At present, the total length of hydrogen pipelines has exceeded 16000 kilometers. The world's longest hydrogen pipeline, about 400 kilometers long, has been built between France and Belgium

the transportation distance of long tube trailer should not be too far, and it is used in occasions with small transportation volume

hydrogen cylinders are used in occasions with small delivery volume and scattered users

liquid hydrogen is generally transported by tank cars and ships, which can be transported over long distances

at present, the hydrogen transmission network system is not mature, which is not conducive to the large-scale commercial application of hydrogen fuel cell technology

in addition, the technological innovation and industrial development of hydrogen energy and fuel cells are a typical process of cross domain innovation and development

in order to reduce the cost and improve the durability of hydrogen fuel cells, technological progress is the primary means to reduce the industrialization cost of hydrogen fuel cells

the goal of tackling is mainly directed at membrane electrode components and bipolar plates: the existing polymer proton exchange membrane production process is complex and needs to be improved and optimized, such as reducing the platinum content in the catalyst and improving the utilization rate. The composite bipolar plate made of metal and graphite has excellent performance, relatively simple processing technology and low material cost. It can be developed to replace the brittle graphite bipolar plate

cost reduction the installation of the test ring on the horizontal spindle depends not only on technological progress, but also on large-scale production

after calculation, the US energy administration believes that only when the cost of fuel cells is reduced to $50/kWh, can they compete with internal combustion engine vehicles

infrastructure laying needs to be accelerated

in the hydrogen energy vehicle industry chain, hydrogen refueling stations are an important hub for upstream hydrogen production and transportation and downstream fuel cell vehicle applications. Improving the construction of hydrogen refueling stations is conducive to accelerating the popularization of hydrogen energy vehicles and the process of technological research and development

according to the statistics of Shiyin think tank, by the end of 2017, there were about 328 hydrogen refueling stations in the world. As of March, 2018, Japan is the first country to reach 100 hydrogen refueling stations

distribution of global hydrogen refueling stations (source: Shiyin think tank)

operation of domestic hydrogen refueling stations (source: Shiyin think tank)

according to the blue book on infrastructure development of China's hydrogen energy industry (2016) issued by the National Technical Committee for hydrogen energy standardization, short-term, medium-term and long-term goals have been set for the construction of hydrogen fuel cell infrastructure

it is stipulated that in 2020, the large-scale promotion and application of hydrogen energy vehicles and hydrogen refueling stations will be first realized in Beijing Tianjin Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, Wuhan and other areas with developed hydrogen energy and fuel cell industries, and a small-scale hydrogen infrastructure network will be built, with a total number of more than 100 hydrogen refueling stations; Fixed fuel power generation reached 200000 kW, and fuel cell transportation vehicles reached 10000

in 2030, the number of fuel cell vehicles will reach 2million, and the total number of hydrogen refueling stations will reach more than 1000, initially forming a hydrogen supply network matching the number of fuel cell vehicles

in 2050, the service area of hydrogen refueling stations will cover the areas with developed hydrogen energy industry in China. With reference to the distribution and requirements of gas stations, the layout of highway hydrogen refueling stations will be completed; The number of fuel cell vehicles reached 10million

LU Hong, associate professor of the school of automotive engineering, Tongji University, pointed out that the understanding and strategic positioning of hydrogen energy are very important

although China has clearly regarded hydrogen energy as one of the energy structures at the national strategic level

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